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Article 311 of the Constitution

Article 311 of the Constitution

According to the recent report a police officer was excused from the help by Mumbai Police Commissioner under Article 311(2)(b) of the Constitution without a departmental enquiry. 

The main key points 

Article 311: 

Article 311 (1) says that no government employee both of an all India services or a state government will be excused or eliminated by a position subordinate to the own that named him/her. 

Article 311 (2) says that no government worker will be excused or eliminated or decreased in position besides after a request in which s/he has been educated regarding the charges and offered a sensible chance of being heard in regard of those charges. 

People Protected under Article 311: The member from 
Common help of the Union, 
All India Service, and Common assistance of any State, 
Individuals who hold a common post under the Union or any State.
The defensive protections given under Article 311 are material just to government workers, for example public officials. They are not accessible to Defence personnel.
Exception to Article 311 (2): 
2 (a) - Where a person is excused or taken out or diminished in position on the ground of lead which has prompted his conviction on a criminal accusation; or 
2 (b) - Where the authority empower to excuse or eliminate an individual or to lessen him in position is fulfilled that for reasons unknown, to be recorded by that expert recorded as a hard copy, it isn't sensibly practicable to hold such request; or 
2 (c) - Where the President or the Governor, by and large, is fulfilled that in light of a legitimate concern for the security of the State, it isn't practical to hold such request. 

Other Recent Case Related to Use of Article 311(2) Subsections: 

As of late, the Jammu and Kashmir organization set up a Special Task Force (STF) to examine instances of workers associated with exercises requiring activity under Article 311(2)(c). 

Three government workers, including two educators, were terminated utilizing the Article. 
Option is to Dismissed Employee: 

The public authority representative excused under these arrangements can approach either councils like the state regulatory court or Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) or the courts. 

Other Related Constitutional Provisions: 
Part XIV of the Constitution of India manages Services under The Union and The State. 

Article 309 enables the Parliament and the State law-making body to manage the enrollment, and states of administration of people designated, to public administrations and posts regarding the issues of the Union or of any State separately.
As per Article 310, aside from the arrangements given by the Constitution, a government worker of the Union works at the joy of the President and a government worker under a State works at the joy of the Governor of that State (English teaching of Pleasure). 

In any case, this force of the Government isn't total. 

Article 311 puts certain limitations on the supreme force of the President or Governor for excusal, evacuation or decrease in rank of an official.

Iron Dome Air Defence System: Israel

Iron Dome Air Defence System: Israel

According to the recent news reports the Israel utilized its Iron Dome air guard framework in late savage conflicts over Jerusalem. 

Main key points 

It is a short-range, ground-to-air, air protection framework that incorporates a radar and Tamir interceptor rockets that follow and kill any rockets or rockets focused on Israeli targets. 

It is utilized for countering rockets, ordnance and mortars just as airplane, helicopters and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). 

It is fit for being utilized in all climate conditions, including during the day and night. 

It was created by the state-run Rafael Advanced Defence Systems and Israel Aerospace Industries and was sent in 2011. 

Rafael claims a triumph pace of more than 90%, with in excess of 2,000 block attempts, anyway specialists concur the achievement rate is more than 80%. 
It can ensure conveyed and moving powers, just as the Forward Operating Base (FOB) and metropolitan territories, against a wide scope of roundabout and ethereal dangers. 


The Iron Dome has three fundamental frameworks that work together to give a safeguard over the space where it is conveyed which are: 

Radar: It has an identification and following radar to detect any approaching dangers. 

Weapon Control: It has a fight the board and weapon control framework (BMC), 
Rocket Fire: It additionally has a rocket terminating unit. The BMC fundamentally liaises between the radar and the interceptor rocket.
Indian Alternatives: 

S-400 TRIUMF: 


India has S-400 TRIUMF, which likewise takes into account the three dangers (rockets, rockets and journey rockets). Be that as it may, they have any longer reach. 

It has a lot bigger air guard air pocket to knock off dangers. 

It is a versatile, surface-to-air rocket framework (SAM) planned by Russia. 
Range and Effectiveness:
The framework can connect a wide range of elevated focuses inside the scope of 400km, at a height of up to 30km. 
The framework can follow 100 airborne targets and draw in six of them all the while. 

Prithvi Air Defence and Advance Air Defence: 

It is a twofold layered framework comprising of two land and ocean based interceptor rockets, to be specific the Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) rocket for high height block attempt, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower elevation interference. 


It can catch any approaching rocket dispatched 5,000 kilometers away. The framework likewise incorporates a covering organization of early notice and following radars, just as order and control posts. 

Ashwin Advanced Air Defence Interceptor Missile: 


It is likewise a natively created Advanced Air Defence (AAD) interceptor rocket created by Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). 

It is the high level form of the low height supersonic ballistic interceptor rocket. 
The rocket additionally has its own portable launcher, secure information interface for capture, autonomous following and homing capacities and refined radars. 


It is also used an endo-spheric (inside the Earth's environment) interceptor that takes out ballistic rockets at a most extreme height of 60,000 to 100,000 feet, and across a reach somewhere in the range of 90 and 125 miles.

Al-Aqsa Mosque & Sheikh Jarrah : Israel-Palestine

Al-Aqsa Mosque & Sheikh Jarrah : Israel-Palestine

According to the recent news, the Israeli military assaulted Al-Aqsa Mosque in the  Haram esh-Sharif in Jerusalem, in front of a walk by Zionist patriots celebrating Israel's catch of the eastern portion of the city in 1967. 

The threatened eviction of many Palestinian families in the East Jerusalem neighborhood of Sheik Jarrah heightened the emergency further. 

The Zionism is a worldwide Jewish development that brought about the establishments and Development of the province of Israel and that currently upholds the territory of Israel as a Jewish country. 

Main key points 

Al-Aqsa Mosque: 

It is perhaps the holiest design in the Islamic confidence. It sits inside a 35-section of land site referred to by Muslims as Haram al-Sharif, or the Noble Sanctuary, and by Jews as the Temple Mount. 

The site is essential for the Old City of Jerusalem, hallowed to Christians, Jews and Muslims. 

It is accepted to have been finished from the get-go in the eighth century and countenances the Dome of the Rock, the brilliant domed Islamic place of worship that is a generally perceived image of Jerusalem. 

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, has arranged the Old City of Jerusalem and its dividers as a World Heritage Site. 

Conflict over Jerusalem: 

Jerusalem has been at the focal point of the Israeli-Palestinian clash. As indicated by the first 1947 United Nations (UN) segment plan, Jerusalem was proposed to be a global city. 

Yet, in the principal Arab Israel battle of 1948, the Israelis caught the western portion of the city, and Jordan took the eastern part, including the Old City that houses Haram al-Sharif. 

Israel caught East Jerusalem from Jordan in the Six-Day War 1967 and added it later. 

Since its addition, Israel has extended settlements in East Jerusalem. 

Israel considers the to be city as its "bound together, endless capital", though the Palestinian administration across the political range have kept up that they would not acknowledge any trade off recipe for the future Palestinian state except if East Jerusalem is its capital. 

Sheik Jarrah Issue: 

Countless Palestinians were constrained out of their homes when the State of Israel was made in chronicled Palestine in 1948. 

28 of those Palestinian families moved to Sheik Jarrah in East Jerusalem to settle there. 

In 1956, when East Jerusalem was governed by Jordan, the Jordanian Ministry of Construction and Development and the UN Relief and Works Agency worked with the development of houses for these families in Sheik Jarrah. In any case, Israel would catch East Jerusalem from Jordan in 1967. 

By the mid 1970s, Jewish offices began requesting the families leave the land. 
Recently (2021), the Central Court in East Jerusalem maintained a choice to remove four Palestinian families from their homes in Sheik Jarrah for Jewish pioneers. 

The issue stays uncertain and possibly inflammable. 

India's Stand on Israel-Palestine Issue: 
India recognised Israel in 1950 yet it is likewise the principal non-Arab nation to perceive Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the sole agent of the Palestinian. 

India is likewise one of the primary nations to perceive the representative of Palestine in 1988. 

In 2014, India supported UNHRC's goal to test Israel's basic freedoms infringement in Gaza. In spite of supporting the test, India went without casting a ballot against Israel in UNHRC in 2015. 

As a piece of Link West Policy, India has de-hyphenated its relationship with Israel and Palestine in 2018 to treat both the nations commonly free and select. 

In June 2019, India casted a ballot for a choice presented by Israel in the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) that had a problem with giving consultative status to a Palestinian non-legislative association. 

So far India has attempted to keep up the picture of its recorded good ally for Palestinian self-assurance, and simultaneously to participate in the military, financial, and other key relations with Israel. 

Related Developments: 

In March 2021, International Criminal Court (ICC) dispatched investigatations into the atrocities in Palestinian regions involved by Israel (West Bank and the Gaza Strip). 

In April 2021, the US reestablished at any rate USD 235 million in monetary help to the Palestinians. 

Forward planning 

The world at large needs to meet up for a quiet arrangement however the hesitance of the Israeli government and other included gatherings have irritated the issue more. Along these lines a fair methodology would assist with keeping up great relations with Arab nations just as Israel.
According to the new normalization arrangements among Israel and the UAE, Bahrain, Sudan, and Morocco, known as the Abraham Accords, are the positive developments. All local forces ought to visualize harmony between the two nations on line of Abraham Accords.